Saturday, April 9, 2011

Development of Print Media in Nepal

The modern history of print media in Nepal starts only when Janga Bahadur Rana brought printing press in 1851 AD while returning from his England trip. The press was known as 'Giddhe Chhapakhana' because the machine carried the image of a vulture on its top. It is widely accepted that Janga Bahadur Rana's effort to bring printing press in Nepal is the beginning of modern era in the discipline of mass media.

Newspaper published during Rana Period:-
1 Sudha Sagar
2 Gorkhapatra
3 Sharada: Monthly newspaper started publishing in 1991 Falgun, Editor: Rhiddi Bahadur Malla,
4 Udhyog: Fortnightly magazine published first in 1992 BS, Editor : Suryabhakta Joshi .
Juddha S. JBR was positive to develop media industry in the country. So, this newspaper was published as a journal to impart industrial information. But it was converted to the literary magazine after two years .It got published having various poems of great poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota.
5 Sahitya Shrot: Baisakh, 2004 BS, Monthly Literary Magazine, Editor: Hridayachandra Singh Pradhan;
6 Gharelu Ilam Patrika: Jestha, 2004 BS, Fortnightly, Editor: Bhimnidhi Tiwari. It was published by Gharelu Ilam Prachar Adda (government office)
7. Shikshya: Jestha, 2004 BS, Fortnightly, Editor: Bhimnidhi Tiwari .
8 Kathmandu Municipal Patrika : Manghsir, 2004 BS, Fortnightly, published on the initiative of Kathmandu municipality .
9 Nepal Shikshya: Asoj, 2005 BS, Monthly, A team of five editors headed by Trailokyanath Upreti published the magazine.
10 Ankha: Asoj, 2005 BS, Monthly, Editor: Devi Prasad Rimal
11 Purusartha: Poush, 2006 BS, Monthly literary magazine, Editor: Budhisagar Seshraj Sharma.
12 Jagaran Weekly: Falgun, 2007 BS, Editor: Hridayachandrasingh Pradhan. It was the first weekly newspaper published from the private sector and first anti–Rana newspaper.
Various newspapers were published from some cities of India in Nepali language.

Gorkhapatra has a major role in development of print media inNepal. It started to get published after two years and ten months of the publication of the Sudha Sagar. It was first printed in Baisakh 24, Monday of 1958, (May 6 1901). With the publishing of Gorkhapatra, Nepal has entered into the newspaper development era in the history of Nepali journalism. Gorkhapatra is the first Nepali newspaper, second press publication and third press publication in Nepali language.
In Bharda, 1992 BS, Editor Surya Bhakta Joshi started Udhyog Fortnightly as an industrial information journal. But it converted into monthly literary magazine after two years. In Asoj, 2000, Gorkhapatra started publishing twice a week after 42 years of its beginning.

Within 24 hours of the proclamation of democracy in 2007, 'Awaj' the first daily news paper of Nepal was published in Falgun 8, 2007 from Kathmandu. Siddhi Charan Shrestha was the Editor of the newspaper. It presented a Banner headline news on royal proclamation of democracy establishment, along with photograph of King Tribhuvan in its first issue. Unfortunately, Awaj sustained just for two years.

In Bhadra 24, 2011 BS, 'Samaj', the second daily newspaper was brought out from Kathmandu, Editor of the newspaper was Pashupati Dev Pandey; later Mani Raj Upadhyaya gave editorial leadership to the newspaper. Many weeklies, half weeklies and dailies got published during the period. Women also took initiatives to publish the newspaper. In 2008 Jestha 'Mahila' a monthly magazine was published having Editors namely Sadhana Pradhan and Kamakchha Devi (first female journalist of Nepal). Journalism was started in various languages like English, Newari, Hindi in Nepal.

'Nepal Guardian' is the first English monthly magazine which was published from Kathmandu in 2010 BS (1948 AD). The magazine was printed in Calcutta, Editor- Barun Samsher JBR.

'The Commoner', the first English daily newspaper of Nepal, published from Kathmandu in 2012 (1956 July 15), Editor- Gopal Das Shrestha. Other newspapers published in English language include, Daily Mirror, Everest News, The Motherland etc.

In Kartik, 2009, 'Pasa ', a fortnightly newspaper was published in Newari language. Editor of the newspaper was Asharam Shakya. 'Nepal Bhasa Patrika', the first Newari daily newspaper was published from Kathmandu in 2012 Asoj 16. Fatte Bdr. Singh was the Editor of the newspaper.

'Tarang Weekly', the first Hindi newspaper, got published from Kathmandu in 2008 Shrawan, Editor- Bhoj Bahadur Singh. 'Jai Nepal', the first Hindi Daily, was published in 2012, Shrawan from Kathmandu. Editor was Indra Chandra Jain. The publication took place out of Kathmandu valley. 'Sewa' was the first monthly newspaper published from out of Kathmandu valley (Birgunj) in 2008, Shrawan. It was printed in Banaras of which Editor was Shyam Prasad Sharma.

During this period, around 170 newspapers brought out in Nepal. Mainly political parties were enthusiastic to publish the newspaper as a means of political awareness at the moment.
Around 35 political publications took place during the period. Some main political party publications were Nepal Pukar and Nawa Nepal published by Nepali Congress, Nepal Sandesh and Jana Bani by Rastriya Praja Parishad, Nawa Yug by Communist Party of Nepal, Mashal, Naya Bato by Nepali Rastriya Congress, Samyukta Prayas by Samyukta Prajatantra Party, Karmabir by Karmabir Mahamandal etc. Most of them were weeklies.

 Some Leading weeklies : Samikchha, Matribhumi, Naya Sandesh, Saptahik Manch, Jana Sambad, Yug Sambad, Jana Jyoti, Jan Jagriti, Deshantar, Dristi, Punarjagaran, Saptahik Manch, Saptahik Bimarsha, Rastra Pukar, Chalphal, Pratibadha, Gatibidhi, Tarka, Arati, Arpan, Panchayat Bato, Anchal Sandesh (Janakpur), Lumbini Sandesh, Bheri Sandesh, Gandaki Sandesh, Himalayan Guardian, Nepal Review, The Nepalese Perspective etc.

Rastriya Sambad Samiti, RSS (later called Rastriya Samachar Samiti established in 2018 Falgun 7th after merge of two private news agency SSS and NSS.

Kantipur and The Kathmandu Post, the first broad sheet national dailies from private sector were published in 2049 Falgun 7th. Due to the popularity in the short time many other broadsheet dailies came out. Some of them sustained and some went out from the sight.
Shree Sagarmatha, Everest Herald (English daily), Lokpatra, Space Time, Space Today, Shree Deurali, Naya Sadak stopped their publication not because of government but by their own problem.

Simultaneous publication also started to get published. Nepal Samacharpatra started to publish from Biratnagar since 2058, Baisakh . Kantipur started since 2061 Ashar from Bharatpur. Newspaper publications were also stared from outside the country. For example Nepal Samacharpatra initiated its publishing from Doha, Qatar since 2062 Ashead, although it could not sustain for a long time. Now Kantipur and Rajdhani dailies have their weekly publication from Doha but not simultaneous. Newspaper publication in different languages was started and going on.

Nepal Press Institute (2010). Comparative study of media and journalism of Nepal.
Adhikary, N. M. (2008). A brief study of historical development of mass media in Nepal.
Communication, media and journalism an integrated study. Kathmandu: Prashanti Prakashan.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Media of Nepal
Acharya, B.B (2008). Introduction to Mass Communication and Journalism.
Shrestha, B. (2005). Media History and Print Development in Nepal

Resource collection and interpretation by- Biplav Acharya

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